Saturday, September 27, 2008

Chiang Ching-kuo

Chiang Ching-kuo , Kuomintang politician and leader, was the son of Chiang Kai-shek and held numerous posts in the government of the Republic of China . He succeeded his father to power, serving as Premier of the Republic of China from 1972 to 1978, and President of the Republic of China from 1978 until his death in 1988. Under his tenure, the government of the Republic of China, although still , became much more open and tolerant of political dissent. Towards the end of his life, Chiang relaxed government controls on the press and and put native Taiwanese in positions of power, including his successor Lee Teng-hui who furthered the course of democratic reforms.

Early life

The son of Chiang Kai-shek and his first wife Mao Fumei, Chiang Ching-kuo was born in Fenghua, Zhejiang, and had the of Jiànfēng . He had an adopted brother, Chiang Wei-kuo. Ching-kuo literally means meridian, while Wei-kuo means : in other words Chiang Kai-shek's sons were destined to govern the whole country.

Young Chiang Ching-kuo had a peaceful relationship with his mother and grandmother, who was Buddhist and very religious, and a problematic one with his strict father. Deeply involved in politics, Chiang Kai-shek appeared to his son as an authoritatian figure and sometimes indifferent to his problems. In letters, Chiang Kai-shek repeatedly asked Chiang Ching-kuo to keep improving his calligraphy, an important art in ancient China.

From 1916 til 1919, Chiang Ching-kuo attended the "Grammar School" in Wushan in Hsikou. Beginning in 1920 he was tutored by Ku Ch'ing-Lien, later substituted by Wang On-Sheng, who was hired by the father to teach Ching-kuo the four books, considered the base of Chinese culture. On June 4, 1921, Ching-kuo's grandmother died; an emotional loss compensated for by the father finally taking care of his sons.

That year, the Chiang family moved to Shanghai, together with Chiang Ching-Kuo's stepmother, the woman who has been historically known as "Shanghai mother". During this period, Chiang Kai-shek concluded that Chiang Ching-kuo was a son to be taught, while Chiang Wei-Kuo a son to be loved.

In 1925, Chiang Ching-Kuo went to Moscow to study communism on his own volition; his father agreed, since it seemed a sensible thing to do at the time because the Kuomintang and Communist Party of China were allied in the in preparation for the . Moreover, we remind that the father was an "alumnus" of Sun Yat-sen, father of the Republic of China, who had strongly believed in the principles of socialism.

In Moscow, he was given the Russian name Nikolai Vladimirovich Elizarov and put under the tutelage of Karl Radek at the Communist University of the Toilers of the East. He was noted for having an exceptional grasp of international politics. His classmates included other children of influential Chinese families, most notably the future Chinese Communist party leader, Deng Xiaoping. In Moscow, the younger Chiang became an enthusiastic student of Communist ideology, particularly Trotskyism. Following the Great Purge, Joseph Stalin privately met with Chiang and ordered him to denounce Trotskyism. Chiang even applied to be a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, although his request was denied.

In April 1927, however, Chiang Kai-shek purged the leftists and Communists from the and expelled his advisers. Following this event, Chiang Ching-kuo wrote an editorial, harshly criticizing his father's actions, though there is the clear possibility that he has been forced to write it. In fact, some years before many of his Trotskyist friends had been killed by the Russian secret police. It is possible in this context, that Chiang Ching-kuo has been left "alive" to be used later on by Stalin within the Sino-Soviet relationship. The Soviet government then sent Chiang Ching-kuo to work in the Ural Heavy Machinery Plant, a steel factory in the Urals, Yekaterinburg, where he met Faina Ipat'evna Vakhreva, a native . They married on March 15 1935, and she would later become known as Chiang Fang-liang. In December of that year, a son, was born. A daughter, , was born the next year.

Stalin allowed Chiang Ching-kuo to return to China with his Belarusian wife and two children in April 1937 after living in the USSR for 12 years. The Chinese Communists under Chairman Mao Zedong and the Nationalists still under Chiang's father had signed a ceasefire and formed a to counter the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. Stalin hoped the Chinese would keep Japan from invading of the Soviet Pacific coast, and he hoped to form an anti-Japanese alliance with the senior Chiang.

Chiang Ching-Kuo was appointed as a specialist in remote districts of Jiangxi where he was credited with training of cadres and fighting corruption, opium consumption, and illiteracy. During this time , he first met Wang Sheng, with whom he would remain close for the next 50 years.

Back in China, Chiang and his wife eventually had two more sons, , born in Chungking, and , born in Shanghai. Out of his affair with Chang Ya-juo, Chiang also had two twin sons in 1941: and .


During the Chinese Civil War, Chiang Ching-kuo briefly served as a liaison administrator in Shanghai and tried to crack down the corruption and hyperinflation that plagued the city. He was determined to do this because of the fears arising from the Nationalists' increasing lack of popularity during the Civil War. He was given the task to arrest dishonest businessmen who hoarded supplies for profit during the inflationary spiral. To assuage the business community, he explained that his team would only go after big war profiteers. His efforts were beginning to show results until he went after the family of his stepmother Soong Mei-ling. Soong told Ching-kuo's father Chiang Kai-shek to force Ching-kuo to back off. Although Ching-kuo backed off, Soong Mei-ling and Ching-kuo remained on so so terms perhaps for the rest of their lives.

Political career in Taiwan

Chiang Ching-kuo followed his father and the retreating Nationalist forces to Taiwan after the Nationalists lost control of mainland China to the Communists in the Chinese Civil War. On December 8, 1949, the capital was moved from Nanjing to Taipei. Early in the morning on December 10, 1949, Communist troops laid siege to Chengdu, the last controlled city on mainland China, where Chiang Kai-shek and his son Chiang Ching-kuo directed the defense at the Chengdu Central Military Academy. The aircraft ''May-ling'' evacuated them to Taiwan on the same day; they would never return to mainland China.

In 1950, Chiang's father appointed him director of the secret police, which he remained until 1965. Chiang orchestrated the controversial court-martial and arrest of General Sun Li-jen, in August 1955, for allegedly plotting a coup d'état against his father. General Sun was a popular Chinese war hero from the Burma Campaign against the Japanese and remained under house arrest until Chiang Ching-kuo's death in 1988. Chiang Ching-kuo's activities as director of the secret police have been widely criticized as heralding an era of human rights abuses in Taiwan even to this date.

From 1955 to 1960, Chiang administered the construction and completion of Taiwan's highway system. Chiang's father elevated him to high office when he was appointed as the ROC Defense Minister in 1965, where he remained until 1969. He was the nation's Vice Premier between 1969 and 1972, during which he survived an assassination attempt while visiting the U.S. in 1970. Afterwards, he was the nation's Premier between 1972 and 1978. In Chiang Kai-shek's final years, he gradually gave more responsibilities to his son. Chiang Kai-shek died in April 1975, and was succeeded to the presidency by Yen Chia-kan while Chiang Ching-kuo succeeded to the leadership of the Kuomintang .


Chiang was officially elected President of the Republic of China by the after the end of the term of President Yen Chia-kan on May 20, 1978. He was reelected to another term in 1984. At that time, the National Assembly consisted mostly of "thousand year" legislators who had been elected in 1947-48 before the fall of the mainland.

Chiang maintained many of his father's autocratic policies during the early years of his term in office. He continued to rule Taiwan as a military state under martial law, as it had been since the Nationalists re-established its capital on Taiwan, in anticipation of an imminent invasion by the People's Republic of China.

Chiang launched the "Fourteen Major Construction Projects" and "Ten Major Construction Projects and the Twelve New Development Projects" contributing to the "Taiwan miracle." Among his accomplishments were accelerating the process of modernization to give Taiwan a 13% growth rate, $4,600 per capita income, and the world's second largest foreign exchange reserves.

However, in December 1978, U.S. President, Jimmy Carter made the shocking announcement that the United States would no longer recognize the ROC as the legitimate government of China. Under the Taiwan Relations Act, the United States would continue to sell weapons to Taiwan. However, the TRA was purposely vague in any promise of defending Taiwan in the event of an invasion. But the United States would now end all official contact with the Chiang's government and withdraw its troops from the island. Carter was so eager to make the announcement that the American ambassador had to wake Chiang up in the middle of the night to inform him of the decision.

In 1987, Chiang ended martial law and allowed family visits to the Mainland China. His administration saw a gradual loosening of political controls and opponents of the Nationalists were no longer forbidden to hold meetings or publish papers. Opposition political parties, though still illegal, were allowed to form. When the Democratic Progressive Party was established in 1986, President Chiang decided against dissolving the group or persecuting its leaders, but its candidates officially ran in elections as independents in the Tangwai movement.

In an effort of bringing more Taiwan-born citizens into government services, Chiang Ching-kuo hand-picked Lee Teng-hui as vice-president of the Republic of China, first-in-the-line of succession to the presidency.

Death and legacy

Chiang died of heart failure and hemorrhage in Taipei at the age of 78. Like his father, he was interred "temporarily" in Daxi Township, Taoyuan County, but in a separate mausoleum in Touliao, a mile down the road from his father's burial place. The hope was to have both buried at their birthplace in Fenghua once the mainland was recovered. In January 2004, Chiang Fang-liang asked that both father and son be buried at Wuchih Mountain Military Cemetery in Hsichih, Taipei County. The state funeral ceremony was initially planned for Spring 2005, but was eventually delayed to winter 2005. It may be further delayed due to the recent death of Chiang Ching-kuo's oldest daughter-in-law, who had served as the de-facto head of the household since Chiang Fang-liang's death in 2004. Chiang Fang-liang and Soong May-ling had agreed in 1997 that the former leaders be first buried, but still be moved to mainland China.

Unlike his father Chiang Kai-shek, Chiang Ching-kuo built himself a folksy reputation and remains a generally popular figure especially among many of the Taiwanese electorate. His memory and image is frequently invoked by the Kuomintang, which is unable to base their electoral campaign on Chiang's successor as President and Chairman Lee Teng-hui because of Lee's ironic support of Taiwan for Taiwanese. Chiang Ching-kuo admitted he was a "Taiwanese" after fleeing from mainland.

Among the Tangwai and later the Pan-Green Coalition, opinions toward Chiang Ching-kuo are more reserved. While long-time supporters of political liberalization do give Chiang Ching-kuo credit for relaxing authoritarian rule, they point out that Taiwan was still quite authoritarian in the early years of his rule. Nonetheless, as with Pan-Blue followers, many still think rather highly of him for his efforts and openness in domestic developments.

Under President Chen Shui-bian, pictures of Chiang Ching-kuo and his father have gradually disappeared from public buildings. The AIDC, the ROC's air defense company, has nicknamed its AIDC F-CK Indigenous Defense Fighter the ''Ching Kuo'' in his memory.

All of his legitimate children studied abroad and two of his children married in the United States. Only two remain living: is a prominent politician and Chiang Hsiao-chang and her children and grandchildren reside in the United States.

Wen Chi Chen

Wen Chi Chen has been President and CEO of VIA Technologies, Inc. since 1992, and has overseen its transition from chipset designer to a leading developer of silicon chip technologies and PC platform solutions. Chen's strong background in logic design, marketing, and business strategy has propelled VIA to be one of the foremost fabless semiconductor design houses in the world.

Prior to VIA, Chen co-founded and was President and CEO of Symphony Laboratories. He also held positions of Sales & Marketing VP at high tech start-up ULSI and senior architect at Intel. A committed Christian, Chen holds a masters's degree in electrical engineering from National Taiwan University and a masters in computer science from the California Institute of Technology.

Under Chen's leadership, VIA has become the world’s leading developer of PC core logic chipsets, successfully enabling the industry wide adoption of PC133 and DDR266 SDRAM as the next generation memory standards. Building on the company’s strength in core logic chipsets, Chen has expanded the company’s technology leadership into low power x86 microprocessors with the acquisition of Cyrix and Centaur, high performance graphics with the S3 Graphics joint venture, networking, communications, and multimedia chips, as well as innovative form factor mainboard solutions.

In June 2008, The Forbes ranked him with his wife Cher Wang, the chairperson of , as the fifth richest of Taiwan.

Tseng Wen-hui

Tseng Wen-hui is the spouse of Lee Teng-hui, former President of the Republic of China.


She married Lee on 9 February, 1949, when Lee was a teaching assistant in the Faculty of Agriculture and Economics at National Taiwan University.

Politically, she stated that she preferred to keep a low profile for her husband's sake; however, she became the object of controversy in 2000 when politicians Elmer Fung, Hsieh Chi-ta, and accused her of attempting to flee to New York with a suitcase containing NT$85 million; in response, she filed a defamation suit against them on 29 March 2000, making her the only first lady in Taiwan's history to become involved in a lawsuit. The three were cleared of charges, but Tseng appealed the verdict to the Taiwan High Court.

Liu Chi-Wen

Liu Chi-Wen from Canton , was a known follower of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the founder of the Chinese Republic and the Chinese Nationalist Party . He was educated in Japan, at the London School of Economics and at Cambridge University.

He was the Chief Secretary in Chiang Kai-shek’s Government and was a Mayor of Nanjing in 1928 and Mayor of in 1932.

He was best man at the wedding of Chiang Kai-shek and Soong Mei-ling in 1927.

Liu Wen: Biography of a Revolutionary Leader

In 2005, Liu's family commissioned Betty Peh T’i Wei to compile a biography on Liu based on Liu’s diary and letters, and interviews with his wife, children and colleagues, as well as academic and general publications.

The 184-page titled ''Liu Chi-wen: Biography of a Revolutionary Leader'' was published privately by the Liu Chi-Wen family. "The Liu family expect that, by reading this book, the future generations may appreciate the kind of people Mr. and Mrs. Liu were and their contributions to their country and people. The readers may also gain an understanding of this unusual family, their traditional Chinese principles, and own Christian beliefs and values."

Lin Mosei

Lin Mosei was a Taiwanese academic, , and the first Taiwanese to receive a in philosophy. He was additionally an esteemed , and was a Christian.

Lin disappeared within days of the 228 Incident in Taiwan in 1947; he is generally believed to have been killed as a part of 's crackdown after the island-wide civilian uprising.

Lin's second son, Lin Tsung-yi, is an academic and educator in psychiatry.


:1887 - Born in Fu-Cheng, Taiwan .
:1916 - B.A. in philosophy from . He was the first Taiwanese graduate at the university.
:1928 - in literature from Columbia University in . He studied under John Dewey and Paul Monroe.
:1929 - in philosophy from Columbia. His doctoral was entitled ''Public Education in Formosa Under the Japanese Administration: Historical and Analytical Study of the Development and the Cultural Problems''. The paper, written in , was not translated into until 2000.
:1945 - Became of Arts at the National Taiwan University in Taipei.
:1947 - Disappeared on March 11.

Doris Brougham

Doris M. Brougham is a Taiwanese educator and Christian missionary. Studio Classroom, the teaching program Brougham founded in 1962, has taught English to hundreds of thousands of native Chinese speakers throughout the world. Brougham also founded ORTV , a Taiwanese Christian media outlet.


Born in Seattle, Washington, Brougham earned a B.A. in Far East Studies from University of Washington, Seattle in 1948. She then declined a scholarship from the Eastman School of Music and traveled by ship to China. After witnessing the Chinese Civil War, she moved to Taiwan in 1951.

Career and honors

In 1994, she established the Doris Brougham Scholarship to provide financial assistance to high school students with good grades in English, as well as college and graduate students majoring in English or Mass Communications.

Brougham was awarded the Order of the Brilliant Star with Special Grand Cordon -- the nation's highest non-military decoration -- and was made an honorary civil servant of the highest level by Chen Shui-bian in 2002.
Brougham was one of the first four foreigners to receive Permanent Resident Status in the ROC.

Other degrees

*Doctor of Humane Letters Seattle Pacific University, Seattle,
*Doctor of Human Letters Azusa Pacific University, Los Angeles
*Doctor of Laws Pacific States University, Los Angeles
*M.A. Communications, , Los Angeles,
*A 1953 alumna of

David Tao

David Tao is a popular Chinese singer-songwriter. He is well-known for his signature R&B tunes and for having popularized this genre in the Mandopop industry.


Early life

David Tao was born in 11 July 1969 in Hong Kong , as Tao Xu Zhong , to parents who were considered famous entertainers in Taiwan. His father, Tao Da Wei , was an actor/singer/composer and his mother, Wang Fu Rong , a very well known Chinese opera singer.

David spent part of his childhood in Hong Kong . His parents supposedly eloped when his father could not get approval to marry his mother. David had his education in Taiwan from kindergarten to the junior high school level at the Bethany Campus of Morrison Academy in Taipei. Later, his father decided to pursue his dream of working for Walt Disney, and they migrated to the United States where David Tao Sr. realised his dream and worked as an animator in Disney Burbank.

His parents later returned to Taiwan where his father began his singing career, leaving David to complete his education in the United States. Left to fend for himself, David took on many jobs, including a stint as a policeman in the LAPD, without the knowledge of his parents. Eventually, he graduated with a bachelor degree in Psychology from UCLA.


Later working as a salesman, he was offered a job by reputed Taiwanese producer Wang Zhi Ping, when the latter found out who he was. So David went back to Taiwan, initially writing, and later producing songs for many singers before releasing his self-titled album ''David Tao'' in 1997. He has since released four more albums, a live concert recording and a compilation of his best songs. His works have influenced many singers to acknowledge his works more than the normal listener. Singers that actually listen to David Tao include Eason Chan, Jay Chou, Wang Lee-Hom, JJ Lin, , Bibi Zhou, etc.


His personalities are best described as "creative, subjective and nervous". He is a typical perfectionist. His hobbies are watching movies & dramas, visiting museums and reading psychology books.

David Tao is also an avid car enthusiast. When he is not working in Taiwan, he enjoys driving his 1970 Ford Mustang in LA.

David Tao is a firm believer of Christianity. He has written songs that have underlying Christian themes and references to them such as, ''Butterfly'', ''Dear God'', ''Rain'' and ''Sweet Hour of Prayer''. He also widely preaches in the concept of love, which is central to the Christian belief.

It would seem that his songs contains names of women, the reasons which is unknown. Among the more popular songs using the names of women are ''Catherine'', ''Katrina'', ''Angeline'', ''Angel'', ''Olia'', ''Melody'' and ''Susan Said''.

The Taiwanese media later uncovered the intention of the song 'Melody' which is named after one of David Tao's ex-girlfriend from LA. She also returned to Taiwan for a music career. Her song called "Love is Not Here" composed by David Tao is one of her most famous songs. She also had an opportunity to duet with Van in the song called ''Ya De Li Ya Hai'' .


David Tao

In 1997, with the help of Wang and another Taiwanese producer, Jim Lee, Tao released his self-titled first album , under an independent label called Shock Records, set up by Taiwanese pop singer Jin Ruei-yao, and her husband. This album set a record in Taiwan during the 9th Golden Music Awards, as the first album from a new singer ever, to be nominated for a total of 5 awards - Best Newcomer, Best Singer, Best Producer, Best Song and Best Album.

''Airport 10.30'' first caught people's attention, but it was the simply arranged, melodic ''I Love You'' that became one of Tao's signature tunes. The album also featured an a cappella song, Spring Wind, which was a new R&B version of a favorite old Taiwanese song. David sang all the vocals in this song, which still stands today, widely regarded as one of the best a cappella songs in .

''Airport 10.30'' was also nominated for the MTV Awards for Best Chinese Video in 1998 along with Coco Lee, who became the eventual winner.

Tao won two of the awards, namely Best Newcomer and Best Producer, becoming the first newcomer/singer to also win a Best Producer award. Tao's first album was notable for the excellent production which, remarkably, was done in Tao's home in entirely. The album also broke new ground in the music style and arrangement with its strong Western-influenced R&B flavor.

Tao shot to an unprecedented meteoric rise to fame following the release of ''David Tao''. Unable to cope with the sudden media attention, he flew back to Los Angeles soon afterwards.

Between ''David Tao'' and his next album, besides releasing a remixed Bastard Pop ep, writing and producing songs for various hit Taiwanese singers, notably a theme song which became one of Taiwanese boyband Tension's hit songs, ''I'll Be With You'', David was not heard on the Mandarin-Pop scene for a long while as he quietly disappeared into obscurity.

I'm OK

In 1999, two years after his first album, Tao released his second album ''I'm OK''. This album was claimed to be a best-selling album by breaking the previous record by selling 600,000 copies, yet various critics had claimed that the impact of ''I'm OK'' was not any stronger than his previous work in terms of style and arrangement.

Notable hits include:
* ballad ''Rain'', ''Angeline''
* Country-flavored ''Small Town Girl''
* R&B-influenced ''Regular Friends''
* ''Leave'', a soul number.
* ''Close to You'', a love ballad.
* ''Tuberose'', a catchy a cappella remake of a traditional Chinese song.

In this album, Tao attempted many musical styles, including, unsurprisingly, his favorite music. In fact, some critics have noted that each of his songs are different from one another, in terms of their style and music arrangement.

David was nominated for six GMA awards for ''I'm OK'' - Best Album, Best Producer, Best Singer, Best Video, Best Song and Best Song Arrangement. He only won the Best Producer Award on the GMA, but ''Rain'' later went on to win Best Chinese Video at the 2000 MTV Music Awards.

Black Tangerine

In 2002, Tao released ''Black Tangerine''. Some notable songs in this post-911 album, of which he derived much of his inspiration from:

* ''Black Tangerine'', a hard-hitting rock song.
* ''Moon Over My Heart'', an updated old Mandarin hit re-rendered in R&B style.
* ''My Anata'', a Japanese-influenced rock number.
* ''Angel'', a love ballad.
* ''22'', a catchy tune depicting the woes of a girl in crossroads.
* ''Butterfly'', an under-rated song which he penned about his relationship with God.
* ''Katrina'', a surprise demo he wrote and sang entirely in English.

What set ''Black Tangerine'' apart was the strong social commentary, including a track consisting of various actual Taiwanese news snippets of unrelated family tragedies and public incidents, placing the state of Taiwanese society in a somewhat negative point of view.

''Black Tangerine'' won various awards in Asia but was, incidentally, overlooked for the Golden Music Awards in Taiwan, where the album was originally intended for.

David has since held a series of successful concerts in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore in 2003, having already won many fans over with his signature simplistic style.

The Great Leap 2005

In 2005, David Tao released his fourth album, ''The Great Leap 2005''. ''The Great Leap 2005'' is David's most successful album so far. ''The Great Leap'' had 4 nominations at "17th Golden Melody Awards" however he was only able to grab the "Best Album Award".
Notable songs in the album include:
*''Ghost'' , the first single of the album, showcasing an eclectic mix of 80's Disco synth with Linkin Park-esque Metal & Rap elements. The lyrical style, a continuation of the social commentary from the previous album, describes a person's fears among a mass media-driven society that is getting too close for comfort.
*''Susan Said'' , a track that combines Beijing Opera's unique singing accent and instrumental arrangement with David Tao's signature R&B style.

*''Love Can'' , An infectious sing-along ballad about love. A throwback to his signature tune, "I Love You" from his debut album.
*''Who Do You Love'' , The first ballad single off the album which had tremendous commercial appeal.
*''Art of War'' , nominated for Best Arrangement in 2006's Taiwan 17th Golden Melody Awards, this rock hit featured the "12 Girls Band" as David and co-arranger, Goh Kheng Long fused hard metal and traditional Chinese instruments into a song leaden with socially critical lyrics.


A fifth studio album by David was released on 4th August 2006. "Beautiful" was a successful album which had 3 nominations in GMA, being nominated with Best Song, Best Composer and Best Male Vocalist. Despite of David being a GMA veteran he never won Best vocalist and this time this was also no exception with David only winning Best Song with his ''Marry Me Today''. Among the more popular songs in the album are the title song ''Too beautiful'', another old song restyled into David's signature arrangement, ''Can't Get You Outta My Mind'', and a duet song with Jolin Tsai, ''Marry Me Today''. It has been rumored that during the filming of the MTV with Jolin on the song ''Marry Me Today'', he refused to hold hands with her, perhaps out of sheer shyness.


* ''''
* ''''
* ''''
* ''Ultrasound ''
* ''''
* ''Soul Power Live''
* ''Soul Power Live @ Hong Kong''
* ''''
* ''''